The Primary Care PTSD Screen (PC-PTSD)  is a very brief 4-item screen designed for use in primary care and other medical settings to screen for PTSD . The screen includes an introductory sentence to cue respondents to traumatic events; however, it does not include a list of potentially traumatic events. Among patients with AOD use disorders, a score of three or above has been shown to indicate the presence of PTSD . Among people with AOD use disorders, the PC-PTSD has been shown to be a reliable and valid measure to use when screening for PTSD [317, 318]. This scale is included in Appendix M.