Changes in diagnostic criteria

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The diagnostic criteria for mental health disorders are defined in internationally accepted diagnostic manuals. Research settings most commonly use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association [10]. Although the fifth version of this manual (DSM-5) has been in use since 2013, some studies included in the literature reviews have still relied on DSM-IV-TR criteria for mental disorders. As such, we refer to both DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria where appropriate. The other major classification system is the International Classification of Diseases (ICD [11]). ICD-11 is due to come into effect from 1 January 2022. Although widely used in clinical practice in many parts of the world, ICD is a general medical classification system and is rarely used in the type of research studies included for review. Nevertheless, ICD is also referred to in these Guidelines and key differences between the DSM-5 and ICD-11 classification systems are noted.

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