Physical activity

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To date there is no evidence about the use of exercise for psychotic disorders other than schizophrenia, or comorbid psychosis and AOD use disorder. Research conducted among individuals with schizophrenia however, has found that physical exercise may be useful in terms of improving cognitive functioning (e.g., short-term memory), promoting healthy lifestyles, and managing medication side-effects [543, 544]. Studies that have examined the efficacy of exercise interventions among people with schizophrenia have included a range of physical activities, including basketball [545], aerobic exercise [543, 546], and yoga [547, 548]. Based on the evidence to date, aerobic activity has the most support [142, 543, 549-553], but there is also some support for resistance training as an adjunct to other exercise [546, 554, 555]. In particular, endurance programs of at least 12-weeks, 3 sessions per week, of general aerobic endurance training lasting at least 30 minutes duration are recommended [556].