The Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS)  was developed by an expert group of Indigenous and non-Indigenous researchers in Queensland to assist with the early identification of AOD problems and mental health risks. This screen has been shown to be reliable, simple, and effective . It has also been validated for use in Indigenous prison populations [474, 475]. The IRIS consists of 13 items which are asked by the AOD worker. The IRIS is made up of two sets of questions, with items 1–7 forming the ‘AOD risk’ component and items 8– 13 forming the ‘mental health and emotional wellbeing risk’ component. The items assessing mental health and emotional wellbeing focus on symptoms of anxiety and depression. The client chooses the answer from a list of response options which best describes their current situation. After tallying up the corresponding numbers, a score of 10 or greater on the AOD component indicates problematic use of AOD is likely, while a score of 11 or greater indicates the need for further assessment or brief intervention regarding mental health and emotional wellbeing .